Macroscopic and fractographic tests

Macroscopic observations are performed with the naked eye or using a magnification of 30 times.

The aim of these tests is to, among others, detect discontinuities in materials, analyse the nature of cracks and fractures, inspect surface defects, assess hardening depth, grain size or directivity of structure. In special cases, the evaluation of the morphology of fractures requires the use of high magnifications possible to obtain when using a scanning electron microscope.

mikroskop stereoskopowy zautomatyzowany Leica M205C

We make:

fracture morphology assessment – determination of the type of fracture, initiation sites (outbreaks), specific characteristics of decay

determination of the mode of decay load method and item operation

3D reconstruction of the fracture surface

Fractographic expertise

Fractographic expertise is based on an attempt to identify the causes and course of the destruction. Understanding these factors allows manufacturers and users of damaged machine parts to avoid similar situations in the future. We try to help our clients understand why and how the destruction took place, which allows us to implement treatments improving a given product at the design and production stage.


automated stereoscopic microscope Leica M205C

digital microscope Keyence VHX 6000

scanning electron microscope Phenom ProX

scanning electron microscope Phenom XL

Fractographic tests

Knowledge of the properties of materials and the causes of disasters or failures is an essential element of many industries. At individual stages of carrying out macroscopic and fractographic tests of products and structures, it is possible to determine whether they meet certain standards and requirements, for instance concerning welding. Whether in construction, automotive, aerospace or any other industry, such analysis is essential to ensure the safety and durability of end products. Correct performance of test activities may determine the design, functioning and use of the finished product. If you are looking for a laboratory worth commissioning it to, with us you are in the right place!

What are macroscopic tests of metal products and what do they involve?

The purpose of fractographic examination is to assess the macrostructure of a material or product and, for example, fractures occurring during failure or damage to machines and structures. The activities are carried out in stages by qualified engineers using various examination techniques and are intended to define non-conformities, e.g. welded joints, the type and nature of the fracture, the causes of destruction and the quality of a given product.


When performing macroscopic tests of metals, both the surface and the cross-section of the material are observed. Thanks to this, it is possible to indicate such aspects as the uniformity of the structure, the occurrence of defects or changes occurring under the influence of thermal and mechanical treatment, the method of production, e.g. welding, and, above all, the nature of the destruction. For example, steel may have different properties depending on the production technology used. At the stage of macroscopic testing, it is possible to detect irregularities in the production process and product quality, and thus prevent quality degradation and subsequent failures or disasters.

When are macroscopic tests of metals performed?

Our analyses are carried out at various stages of production or analysis of the causes of failure, destruction or disaster. They are commissioned by e.g. metal producers and processors, as well as construction, aviation and automotive companies that use, for example, steel in their products, as well as insurance companies, courts and users of machines and installations. It is worth deciding to carry out macroscopic and fractographic examination in order to ensure the highest quality of products, as well as to meet legal requirements and industry standards, and to determine the causes of disasters or failures.

Metal analyses can be one of the stages of quality control of both materials supplied by suppliers and finished products. The results allow for verification whether, for example, the steel is free of defects or inconsistencies that may affect the durability and safety of the structures made of it. Carrying out macroscopic tests can be planned at various stages of production: before, during and after the process. This makes it possible to quickly detect possible errors and take appropriate corrective actions.

Why is it worth ordering macroscopic tests of metal products, machines and structures?

Bearing in mind that when companies and institutions decide to carry out macroscopic examination of metal products, e.g. steel, it can be said with full confidence that it is of key importance in many industry sectors. Using the results we provide, it is possible to improve the quality of products, which thus perform their functions better and are safer and more durable at every stage of operation.

Moreover, macroscopic tests of metal structures and products carried out in our laboratory constitute the basis for the optimisation of production processes, which translates into greater efficiency and competitiveness of the company. So, if you want your company to achieve such results, have us perform the analyses you need!

The course of macroscopic examination of metals

It might seem that we are dealing here with a complicated process carried out by a team of specialists. When observing a work of art, e.g. one by da Vinci, one gets the same impression. It definitely requires appropriate competences, but for us these activities are as natural as creating works of art for painters or composers. Macroscopic and fractographic examinations are performed by observing places of damage to metal products, e.g. steel, in terms of their shape, colour, structure and surface morphology, as well as features that cannot be described in general, just as it is impossible to create instructions for a work of art. Knowledge, skills and what our team has are necessary. So, what are the steps involved in carrying out a macroscopic examination?

Macroscopic testing of metals – Machinefish offer

Every company whose activity involves metal processing should consider our offer. We specialise in performing analyses for clients from various industries. Our team consists of qualified specialists who have at their disposal the latest equipment, many years of experience in their field and knowledge of the subsequent stages of macroscopic examination of steel and other metal materials. Choose our services and be sure that they will be performed at the highest level!